What is it that motivates us? Why do people have different motivators? What role do incentives play in motivation? These are some of the questions explored by Chapter 10. It also provided insight into the difference between internal (intrinsic) motivation and external motivation (extrinsic).
What I found interesting in this chapter were the concepts of punishers (selecting against behaviors and making them less likely to occur) and reinforcers (selecting appropriate behaviors and making them more likely to occur). These concepts seemed to almost contradict the previous chapter on addiction. For instance, why is that some people continue to use drugs and other harmful substances knowing that negative consequences will result? It would seem, based on the theories of reinforcers/punishers that this behavior would be avoided. Perhaps it is the biological component of addiction which accounts for the continuing behavior.
I think personality has a lot to do with motivation as well. The text indicates that extroverts are generally more successful in their careers, etc. (receive more promotions, etc.) because of their outgoing nature. I find this interesting since I am an introvert, but have been tremendously successful in my current career. I have received numerous raises in the 11 years that I have been at my job and have received extremely positive comments despite oftentimes having a preference for my personal space and sometimes limited interaction. I believe my saving grace is that most of my work is to be conducted independently and it is not often that I am required to work as part of a team. During those times when working with others is required, I do so with professionalism and kindess, if not talkative exhuberance. I was somewhat surprised that research didn't reflect that introverts are more successful individuals.
I think since we favor our comfort zone and don't often like to be the center of attention, introverts are individuals who are perhaps more cognizant of their self concept than extroverted individuals.