Friday, June 10, 2022

Negative/Positive Punishment (Post 3-Final)

 It is important to see punishment in terms of both positive and negative, depending on how it is applied. A person's use of punishment may be traced back to the time of their parents. Punishment is described in the book introduction to learning and behavior as the delivery of an unpleasant stimulus or the removal of an appetitive stimulus in order to weaken a behavior. As a result of these fundamental differences, the book also discusses penalties in terms of positive and negative consequences. In the case of negative punishment, an event is removed as punishment for an action, which reduces the power of the reaction in the future. People are less inclined to act in such a reckless manner because their actions result in the loss of what they value. Positive punishment, on the other hand, is the addition of anything to the mix that will result in an unpleasant outcome. The objective is to reduce the possibility that the undesirable conduct will occur again in the future. For example, when a child neglects their responsibilities, a parent will add extra chores to the list. 

Classical VS Operant Conditioning (Post 2)


From a psychological viewpoint, classical conditioning is an important aspect of learning. Classical conditioning refers to learning through provoked reactions or instincts. This process starts with a neutral stimulus and gradually transforms it into a conditioned stimulus through repeated pairings. Pavlov is credited with developing classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is divided into three stages: before conditioning, during conditioning, and after conditioning. Because both are behavioral changes, classical conditioning and operant conditioning might be mistaken at times. Operant is concerned with a voluntary activity that results in a consequence, whereas classical is concerned with an automatic behavior reaction and stimulus. Classical conditioning is characterized by involuntary and inflexible behavior. The stimulus is what prompts the action. Conditioning is all about the stimulus-response. There are several types of operant conditioning, and each one affects the likelihood of future action. Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment are all examples of operant conditioning learning processes. These kinds of learning processes can be difficult to distinguish at times.


Phobias/Flooding Therapy (Post 1)

 Classical conditioning has a significant impact on our lives because of its role in the formation of fear and anxiety. It is possible for a previously neutral stimulus to be linked to an adverse stimulus and trigger anxiety. To avoid a potentially hazardous scenario, this type of fear conditioning serves as a powerful motivator for the individual. As a result of this process, we might get overly concerned about situations that are neither harmful nor threatening at all.There is a wide range of severity when it comes to phobias, with the majority of people experiencing mild to severe symptoms. Intense phobias can lead a person to be so anxious that they are unable to carry out everyday tasks. They are frequently the result of horrific childhood events that left a person feeling so terrified and anxious that they developed a long-term phobia. Phobias can range from a fear of little critters to a fear of things and places that one would not normally encounter. Intense fear of spiders, or arachnophobia, is a typical example of an extreme phobia, and it's one that I share.

 In terms of psychotherapy, there are several alternative treatments, including flooding therapy, a behavioral treatment in which a feared stimulus is repeatedly exposed for an extended period of time, allowing the conditioned fear response to decrease to the maximum extent possible. People who have a fear of dogs, for example, may be put in a room with a dog and requested to pet the dog right away. This would be an extreme case. Despite the fact that this treatment is frequently quite beneficial for long-term phobias, it can be incredibly unpleasant for the patients.

(See video below)