Monday, July 31, 2023

Blog Post #3 Positive Reinforcement

             For my third blog post, I have decided to talk about positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcements work to create an environment that is filled with motivation and it is essential to use positive reinforcements in a proper way. Positive reinforcements are the introduction to desirable stimuli that will encourage correct behavior and action. An example of this would be if you are encouraging your students to complete their assignments in class without getting distracted and you express that if they do, they can all have 5 minutes of free time at the end of class. By offering this “reward” for doing something good it therefore becomes a positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcements are typically used during operant conditioning which is also a method of using different rewards and punishments in order to correct a specific behavior.

Saturday, July 29, 2023

Reinforcers vs Punishers

 According to the lecture slides, a reinforcer increases the frequency of a behavior and a punisher decreases the frequency of a behavior. I use reinforcers and punishers a lot in my own life. For example, when I'm substitute teaching I may reward my class with going outside for a period of class time if they successfully complete their work. If they don't listen to me, I threaten that I'll write a note to their teacher which means they'll be punished. Punishers and reinforcers remind me a lot of extrinsic motivation since individuals are motivated by punishment/rewards with extrinsic motivation. 

Discussion Post #1: Food


         For my first post, I have decided to talk about food. A lot of people have different preferences for the type of food that they like. Depending on the person, they can either enjoy sweet, spicy, or salty foods. However, food preferences can also change over time. This can be due to factors such as the mere exposure effect. From the google slides, I learned the mere exposure effect is eating a certain food repeatedly which causes a person to like the food eventually. 


         It was also interesting to read about taste aversion from the google slides. People experience food aversion after getting food poisoning from eating a specific food. This leads to them not wanting to eat that particular food for a while. I have experienced the same thing after getting food poisoning from eating sushi. When someone experiences the taste again of a food that led to food poisoning, he/she can show signs of nausea and will show expressions of disliking the food (Chambers, 2018).


         To overcome taste aversion, the best thing to do is to slowly start to eat the food that you dislike. Overcoming taste aversion expands the topic of taste aversion which was introduced in the google slides. The mere exposure effect is a great way to overcome food aversion. The more you eat a specific food, it results in an increased liking for it. 




Chambers, K. C. (2018, May 5). Conditioned taste aversions. National Library of Medicine . 

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

 Extrinsic motivation is where an individual is motivated by punishment/rewards whereas intrinsic motivation is where an individual is motivated by an activity for its own sake and personal rewards. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation applies to my life. For example, I want to be a school counselor due to intrinsic motivation - I'm not motivated by the salary of the career choice but rather helping others. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation is currently helping me complete this blog post - my friend said he would buy me a coffee if I get my schoolwork done because I'm having a hard time staying motivated! However, intrinsic motivation does still play a small role because my education is very important to me.


 In the drugs Powerpoint, I learned a lot that I didn't know. For example, I didn't know that nicotine was considered a psychoactive drug. As someone that vapes, this was surprising to me. I also didn't know that ethanol is the alcohol in a drink and caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant in the world. I knew that caffeine is in coffee, colas, and energy drinks, but not chocolate. Lastly, I didn't know that amphetamines come from the kat plant if they're not produced artificially. It's amazing how much I didn't know about drugs until this class - my mind is blown!

Thursday, July 27, 2023

Book Report: The Power of Habit

    The Power of Habit is a book by Charles Duhigg, which discusses that human behavior is based on and built on habits. He established that you do not need to overwork and exhaust yourself in order to get tasks done, rather you can put yourself into good routines and throw away destructive habits. Charles Duhigg provides an understanding of how to help change and break any habit and to develop it into automatic behaviors. There are three parts that make up the entirety of this book, The Habits of Individuals, The Habits of Successful Organizations, and The Habits of Societies.

    The argument Charles Duhigg portrays in his book is that you do not actually think about habits, they are just unconscious decisions you make. A specific statistic stuck out to me during my read of this book by Duhigg, "more than 40% of your daily behaviors are driven by habits that you automatically engage in without conscious thought." These specific habits affect how you think and what you do, along with how your health, relationships, productivity, and even happiness play out. Duhigg explains the reasoning behind the development and formation of automatic behaviors and why your brain processes information about how to function. A large portion of mental energy is taken away from you when you have to apply conscious efforts to learn something new.

    The first part of The Power of Habit starts off with a case study on a man who was majorly affected by a viral encephalitis case. The severity of this man's case soon interested other researchers due to him being able to form new habits slowly despite him not being able to hold memories due to brain damage. As Duhigg wrote, habits "emerge without our permission," and I believe that is why they are so hard to break. The second part of The Power of Habit portrays the argument that people fail habit change due to their reasoning of not understanding how habits change them. People often assume that using their own willpower will take away their habits. Due to specific elements that fuel habits, willpower needs to be stronger and will end up being ineffective. We learned about rewards in PowerPoint #2 and how they affect us, and that shows a connection with habits. The habits we unintentionally form often lead to a craving, which can be the reward anticipation. When people know there are rewards, they continuously perform these habits which makes it hard to ignore the side effects and negative mental effects that come with them. Part three of the book concludes with a discussion of the Golden Rule of habit change. This rule states that you should keep the same cue and reward, but the routine needs to change, you have to replace old habits with new ones. Although we can never fully throw away our habits, there is the possibility for change and more development.

    The whole concept of the book is something that everyone deserves to read. It explains why habits can be a danger to us and lead a pathway to an unhealthy lifestyle. My favorite concept I read in The Power of Habit was the Golden Rule of habit change. It explains how you can keep the old cue and the same outcome or reward, but a new routine should be inserted. It is so difficult to alter your lifestyle and throw away habits, but changing the way you approach it and deal with it can lead you to a positive outcome. You do not have to be extraordinary to achieve what you want. I believe it is important to understand the process of habit change because it also opens a window of understanding oneself and learning determination.

5 Steps to Change a Habit

1. Identify the cue.

2. Identify the reward you crave for.

3. Identify the routine you do to get the reward.

4. Change the routine when you get the cue so that you get the same reward.

5. Believe that you can change your habits and that things can get better. Belief is easier when it occurs within a community" (Sampath, 2013).

The PowerPoints covering rewards and impulsivity/self-control allowed me to understand habits more easily throughout the reading of The Power of Habit. It is common to see that people who are able to have a good sense of self-control can lead themselves into having good habits. These types of people do not end up struggling or falling into a state of denial because their behavior is automated by good habits. Some may argue that rewards are not important in life, but that is not always true. Rewards can help with building healthy habits and can force us to engage in healthy behaviors. If you are using rewards as a motivation tool, there needs to be an understanding that rewards need to align with the values we have, not take over our goals.

Hacking Your Brain’s “Reward System” to Change Habits - YouTube 


Sampath, P. by Venkata S. (2013, February 15). The Golden Rule of habit change: Why transformation occurs. The Tao Of Wealth.,easier%20when%20it%20occurs%20within%20a%20community.%20


Tuesday, July 25, 2023

Grit Book Report

     Grit by Angela Duckworth is a book that has been recommended to me by a few of my doctors when I was admitted into the hospital.  I never read it but I took seeing it on the list of books as a sign and decided to read it.  it was one of the most motivating books I have read.  The main thing that I took away is that having grit is an important thing in life.  It doesn't depend solely on talent but takes into factor your determination and effort you put into things.  I highlighted multiple quotes in this book and I think this one sums up what grit is.  In chapter 1, the book states "It was this combination of passion and perseverance that made high achievers special."  This showed to me that to succeed in life, you need to get through had things and have a strong passion for what you want to do.  Angela Duckworth does a great job of showing examples of grit through the eyes on West Point cadets and even a NFL coach.  

    Many things in this book were my favorite.  A theme in my life has been perseverance.  I have multiple medical problems that have delayed me from getting my degree in the time I planned.  In my plans, I would have had my degree 3 years ago.  Instead, I will be receiving it in the spring. My doctors have pointed out that me even being in school with my health issues is an accomplishment in itself.  I have spent most of my degree from a hospital bed.  I have always stayed motivated because there are things in this world that I want to change.  Whenever I get knocked down, I get back up and continue.  I don't look at my challenges as a bad thing.  Everybody has something hard to deal with in life.  It might be family problems.  It might be financial issues.  It might even be a disease that nobody can figure out.  You have to keep pushing because the other side of this challenge might inspire somebody that is in your position to do the same thing.  Chapter 12 shows what the culture of grit is like.  I really like the quote "Failures are going to happen, and how you deal with them may be the most important thing in whether you succeed."  Life isn't going to be easy and you are going to fail at things.  How you deal with the failures will show your character and determination.  With this idea, I think that I may be different because I am extrinsically motivated.  I don't want to get through my challenges because I want to do it for myself.  I want to get through them so I can help others.  

    When I took the Grit scale in this book, I expected that I would have a higher number than other people my age.  On a scale on 0 to 5, I got a 4.4.  This surprised me.  I account this to the things I have had to face.  A few of the questions on the scale stood out to me.  Number 2 says "Setbacks don't discourage me.  I don't give up easily."  I got a 5 for that.  Number 6 says "I finish whatever I begin".  I answered 5.  I attribute this to my teachings when I was in the 4-H tae kwon do club.  Part of the pledge is "Always finish what you start".  That was always told to me by my parents not letting me quit when things get hard and me wanting the satisfaction of finishing things.  Number 10 says "I have overcome setbacks to conquer and important challenge."  This really stood out and I got a 5.  I think anybody who knows me and knows what I have been through would give me a 5 on this.  

  This is a definition that I think really sums up what grit is. 

This is a quote that I always tell myself in the hard times in my life and it motivates me to keep going. 

Monday, July 24, 2023

Discussion 3: Drugs

                                                                                 Jordyn Neff

                                                                                 Discussion 3


It is so interesting to me that caffeine is technically a drug. I was unaware that caffeine could be classified as a drug. In the slides, it says that caffeine is a psychoactive stimulant. I knew that caffeine had an effect on the mind and body, but I didn't know why. This makes me wonder if this is the reason that people feel like they need caffeine and when they don't have it they go through caffeine withdrawal. It is also known that there can be a tolerance to caffeine and then you need more and more each time to have an effect. After viewing these slides I understand that the reason the body builds up a tolerance and goes through withdrawal is because caffeine is a drug. These slides helped me to recognize the serious effects that caffeine can have on the body. 

Discussion 3: Rewards

The use of rewards is not always a one-size-fits-all solution. Rewards are often seen as a "good thing" in life with no consequences, but that is not always the case. Most of the time, we see parents reward their children for desirable behavior, trying new things, and much more. You might often hear the words reinforcers and rewards together, but they both mean different things. According to the PowerPoint on rewards, reinforcers are "described in terms of their effect on behavior" and they also have the tendency to increase the likelihood of different behaviors. Reinforcers also set the foundation for predictability which are essential for a science. Reading through this presentation on rewards had me thinking of how much they are used in both my daily life and everyone else's lives. The most common way that I reward myself is through shopping. I work two jobs and I work hard to be able to save money, but when I work a lot of hours in a row, I tend to feel the need to reward myself. Positive reinforcements are part of the cons of the reward system in life. They are the start of a timeline of desirable or pleasant encouragement after a certain behavior. The goal of positive reinforcement is for this behavior to continue or for a new behavior to be learned. Due to the brain connecting the action to the reward, there is hope that the target action will be shown again in the future.

Discussion 2: Incentives


                                                                                   Jordyn Neff

                                                                                   Discussion 2 


Prior to these slides, I had never heard of or thought about opportunity costs. I have heard about FOMO which is the fear of missing out but I have never thought about it as an opportunity cost. Now after learning about it, It makes a lot of sense.  I also feel like this relates to when you are choosing to miss out on things that could bring you happiness but you are choosing to make better choices. For example, if you are trying to go to the gym but your friends are going out for drinks. While you are at the gym you are missing out on having a good with your friends but you are choosing to improve yourself. There could come regret that comes with this as you are working on yourself and choosing to improve yourself. It's an opportunity to improve yourself but with that comes opportunity costs and things you're missing out on. 

Disscusion 1: Rewards- Jordyn Neff

                                                                                  Discussion 1 
                                                                                  Jordyn Neff

After going through the slideshow about rewards I began to think of how this is demonstrated in everyday life. When we set goals, we often give ourselves small rewards throughout the process of reaching that goal to keep us going. For example, people on a weight loss journey may reward themselves with something for every 10 pounds lost to keep motivating themselves to reach their goal. the ultimate goal should be enough motivation to keep going but we often need small reinforcers throughout to motivate us completely. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative and they vary from person to person. In order to understand what we could use for reinforcers you must first take a look at what you're trying to achieve and for who. If someone is trying to lose weight a reinforcer should not be a box of tasty cakes, it should be a new outfit or a trip somewhere. It is very important to consider different things before deciding on reinforcers.  

Tuesday, July 18, 2023

Discussion 3- Intrinsic Motivation

     I found the idea of intrinsic motivation to be interesting and to apply to me as opposed to being extrinsically motivated.  Extrinsic motivation is when you are motivated by outside forces.  I find that this does apply to me because I do want to make others happy and to approve of what I do in my life but I do have inner motivations for my career choice and goals I set for myself.  I am into true crime stories and fascinated by them.  Mainly, school and mass shootings.  I want to work on these cases so I can find a way to make this world safer for children in schools.  I don't want to do it for the money.  I want to do it to get the warm feeling and knowledge that I changed the world.  In this way, I definitely consider myself to be intrinsically motivated as opposed to extrinsically.  

Discussion Post #2: Food

             For my second blog post, I have chosen to talk about none other than food. We all love food and you simply can not deny it. Food provides us with energy and life in order to function day to day, but why is it that we love food so much? And why do we like and dislike certain foods more than others? The desire for food starts when you are inside your mother's belly or even during the breastfeeding period. From the slides, we learn that preferences, while they do change, are both learned and innate. The psychology behind this is absolutely phenomenal. The more you eat specific foods, the more likely you are to eat those foods again. As a child, if you eat the same things all the time you are less likely to enjoy trying out new foods. It is important to try all kinds of food to broaden your taste pallet as well as to have various healthy options.

            One crazy aspect that the mind so greatly influences us, is the idea of having such a bad experience with a food that you will never eat it again. Typically if a person is at a restaurant and eats something that has hair in it or something that makes them very very sick, they will no longer ever eat that. I can confess that I have been like but to a point. Certain seafood I won't eat due to having a severe case of seafood poisoning, but other things I have moved on from and have eaten again. It is truly a huge game that your mind likes to play on you. Again food is a huge structure to our lives, so it is extremely important that we are putting nutritious food in our bodies.

Discussion Post #1: Addiction & Self Control

           For my first post have decided to talk about both addiction and self-control, because in a sense they go hand in hand. Self-control allows a person to learn patience and regulation as a physical response in order to avoid irrational behaviors. It is merely the ability to prevent and control impulsive choices. Self-control can refer to anything, even if it’s something as simple as how late you stay up, how much time you spend on your phone, or even how many cookies you have for dessert. Self-control is a very powerful tool that allows a person to have a better relationship with not only themselves but everything around them.

            Addiction then falls in the category of self-control, when that person lacks to ability to have control over the matter. Drugs, alcohol, smoking, shopping, procrastination, etc are all things that can be used in moderation with self-control but when there is a lack of control it then becomes an addiction. Addictions are invasive of a person's life, infiltrating their well-being. If too far out of control addictions weigh down a person's life affecting their health, relationships, work, school, gym, etc. and before that person knows it, what could have been fixed with just a little self-control has now eroded their entire life.

Grit : Angela Duckworth Book Report

     The book "Grit" by Angela Duckworth stood out to me the most as I was reading the list of options from which we might select the subject of our book reports. The main takeaway from the entire book is that grit is an indicator of effort above talent.  A person who scores well on the grit scale probably puts in twice as much effort as someone who relies solely on talent.  People with a lot of grit will frequently be more successful than those who only rely on talent.  The author spent much time attempting to compare the grit of top achievers to intelligence, intrinsic talent, or physical anomalies. The author of this book, Angela Duckworth, claims that it "shows parents, educators, students, and business people, both seasoned and new, that the secret to outstanding achievement is not talent but instead a focused persistence known as Grit. "Angela Duckworth is the foremost authority on "Grit," the much debated component of human accomplishment. "Grit," according to Angela Duckworth's definition, is "a passion and sustained persistence applied toward long-term achievement, with no particular concern for rewards or recognition along the way." According to Angela, grit consists of five qualities: courage, conscientiousness (being goal-oriented rather than dependable), long-term objectives and perseverance, resilience (being upbeat, confident, and creative), and excellence rather than perfection. Grit may help you succeed at everything, whether it's playing sports, getting good grades in school, getting your ideal career, etc. It is really vital to never give up on something you truly love. Give it your all no matter what you're doing, redo it if required, don't give up because that's never the solution to anything, and take your time to do it right. 

My favorite part of the book is where she makes the case that striving for greatness requires both talent and hard work because most people who put in the effort can achieve the same results. For instance, Scott Barry Kaufman's admission that he had a learning disability and a history of recurrent ear infections as a child was the aspect of his past that I thought to be the most fascinating. But as he grew older, he took up the cello and became obsessed with improving. He excelled in his honors courses and was accepted into the high school orchestra as a result. He went in for an audition because the opera program didn't give test scores much weight. He selected psychology as his minor and took a psychology course as an option. After switching from opera to psychology, he earned a Phi Beta Kappa degree (Duckworth, 2016, p. 31–34). This section of the book is one of my favorites because it cautions the reader against emphasizing talent to the point that we lose sight of other crucial factors. I experience some learning challenges, which makes it tough for me to learn new things.  I used strategies like contacting a tutor to check my papers for comments, bombarding my lecturers with questions when I didn't understand the material, completing my assignments in order of their due dates, and working out to help me feel less overwhelmed.  My parents give me a lot of support, I pursue my interests, and I want to graduate even though I don't have a lot of talent but I have grit. 

As stated by Duckworth, "Children have never been very good at listening to their elders, but they have never failed to imitate them" (Duckworth, 183). Therefore, leaders and parents must demonstrate optimism by their behaviors. In her book "Grit," Angela Duckworth contends that while having doubts during trying circumstances is normal, how you handle those doubts demonstrates how tenacious you are. Shackleton is not just a remarkable leader, but also a shining example of grit for his ability to persevere in trying circumstances in pursuit of his crew's survival, as well as his capacity to uplift others through his acts. I found Angela Duckworth's book "Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance" to be inspiring and enjoyable, and it changed the way I thought about my own capacity for success. In a warm, relatable style that gives the reader the confidence to be open and vulnerable with their own concerns, Duckworth discusses her personal experience of understanding that illusions about knowledge were holding her back. My favorite part of the book was how Duckworth used the "How Gritty Are You" questionnaire to directly address the reader's negative emotions because it had such a profound effect on my perspective. The book offers a few examples of how students might comprehend that success does not require talent. They should instead put their energies into something they love, work hard, and seek assistance.  For college students having difficulty in their academics, the book may offer a fresh perspective. I learned from the book that I'm not alone in my struggles with school and life in general. (GRIT Scale)

This ted talk serves as a reminder that success can be achieved with perseverance, determination, and a willingness to learn, regardless of what your parents or anybody else wishes for you. 

Monday, July 17, 2023

Discussion 2: Impulsivity and Self-Control

 Self-control is an important factor that most people learn from a very early age. There are two sides to having self-control, they can be either negative or positive. Those who fall on the negative side tend to have little to no self-control and they end up harming their physical and/or mental health. The positive side is when someone understands the possible consequences of their action so they play things safe. I believe that self-control is something that everyone should practice and understand to be successful in life. In today's world, it appears that the Internet and other factors play a role in self-control. Young kids nowadays have plenty of access to social media and are getting persuaded and pressured into trying new things, whether they are good or bad. Self-control is necessary for these circumstances because it is greatly influenced by the choice of immediate reward over delayed gratification. I believe that everyone should practice some way of mental and physical rehabilitation to lower stress, upgrade self-care, and perfect self-control. These can be ways to control impulsivity in our lives and increase our sense of awareness and pleasure in life.

Saturday, July 15, 2023

Drug Abuse(Post 3)

In my third post, I will be discussing drug abuse/addiction. Unfortunately, this is a huge problem in today's society and has caused a lot of damage, and also has led to a lot of deaths. It is the sad truth that even drugs that are prescription can be abused, which are easier to get. I grew up with a friend in high school who lost a parent due to drug addiction. It is extremely sad and should be talked about more because people need to be aware of what is happening because it doesn't just affect the person doing the drugs, but it affects the surrounding people as well. The scary part is that anyone can become addicted to drugs, whether it is alcohol, cocaine, opiates, or other drugs including prescription. It starts experimental, but can lead you down a very deep, dark hole that may seem impossible to get out of.

In the show Intervention, you see a lot of these drug addiction cases. Addiction may be a choice at first, but it is also a disease/disorder that not everybody understands. There are so many factors as to why people become drug addicts. A lot of it comes from unhealed childhood trauma, abusive relationships, and lack of self-worth. The truth is that drugs are talked about a lot, but I do not think a lot of people understand the severity of drug addiction. There are so many people that have lost their loved ones because of addiction. My best friends' brother is still struggling to this day with drug addiction. He has stole really expensive things from his family for drug money, and has been in and out of jail multiple times. The effect that this has on her family is very strong, which is why we need to be aware of drugs and the harm it can cause. Drug addiction is very serious, and if we keep the awareness alive and provide people with the resources needed to overcome the addiction and get the help that they need, maybe we could save more lives.

Positive Reinforcement(Post 2)

     After looking over the lecture slides, I decided to touch on the term positive reinforcement and why it is such an important tool when it comes to motivation. According to the internet, "positive reinforcement  involves the addition of a reinforcing stimulus following a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future". For example, when a child is being toilet trained, positive reinforcement really comes in handy. Every time the child uses the toilet, you give them some sort of prize, which could be a sticker, a new, cool pair of underwear, or even just uplifting, positive words that will make them want to continue doing what they just did. This also can occur in adults as well. When you are working at a job that appreciates you and makes you feel like you are enough and feel like you are succeeding at the company, you are more likely to continue to do your best. If you work for a company that undermines your ability, underpays you, and does not appreciate your hard work, it will be more difficult to want to do your best or you even might start to dread going to work. 

    Positive reinforcement is used often in operant conditioning. Operant conditioning consists of three important factors, which are the antecedent, the behavior, and the consequence. The antecedent is the signal that a response will lead to a particular consequence. If this signal is absent, it is less likely to be followed by the consequence. The behavior is the action that produces the consequence, which is either increased or decreased in the future. Lastly, consequence is the item of sensation that follows the behavior. All of these factors work together and are linked with positive reinforcement. 

The YouTube link below is a video clip from the show, The Bing Bang Theory. In this clip, Sheldon uses positive reinforcement to increase the behaviors that he wants to see in his friend, Penny. This is a good demonstration of positive reinforcement and why it is so important.

Friday, July 14, 2023

In the book " The Power of habit, Dugigg guides readers on a quest to comprehend the psychology of habit formation, which affects cultural normals, corporate success and personal conduct. He describes a three part framework called " The Habit Loop" that consist of a trigger, a routine and a reward that shows how this loop influences our behavior and reinforces our certain habits. Duhigg covers a wide range of habits- related subjects, including personal habits that influences our daily lives and the habits of prosperous business and social movements. He explores case, studies, anecdotes, and addiction. The book emphasizes that habits are not necessarily inherently good or bad but neutral behavior-patterns that can be harnessed and transformed. Duhigg highlights the importance of understanding the cues and rewards that drive our habits and the ability to idenifty and modify the associated routines. Individuals can create profound life changes by replacing negative habits with postive ones.

This author explores organizational habits, showing hoe effective business have used to spur innovation, enhance staff productivity and create long term successes. Duhigg shows examples of how businesses can create a culture of productive routines and habits, ultimately boosting output, collaboration and efficiently. The painstaking researched, actual -world experiences, and helpful advice. A broad spectrum of readers can understand and relate to complex subjects because duhiggs entertaining storyline and concise writing style. The book gives readers a thorough understanding of how habits are formed and offers a practical tactics for individuals and organzation looking to make reasonable changes.

Thursday, July 13, 2023

Discussion 2- Exercise Addiction

     I found the topic of exercise addiction to be interesting.  I didn't even know that it was a thing.  I have heard people say that they are addicted to exercise and working out but didn't realize it is recognized in the psychological community.  I would say that I like to exercise myself and it makes me feel good but it doesn't give me the high some people get from it.  Exercise addiction follows drug addiction in a few ways.  One difference is that exercise addiction is a positive addiction, meaning that it benefits health.  it can turn into a negative addiction if it gets too extreme.

    You often don't think that exercise can be harmful to your health.  When you exercise, you are building muscle and improving your tolerance to it.  This is like drug tolerance where the user needs to increase the amount of drugs they take to achieve the high they want.  People with exercise addiction will start to need to exercise more and more.  This can be harmful to the health because if you work out too hard, too fast, you can cause harmful affects to your body. This is one of the rare addictions that can improve your health but can also become harmful and addictive. 


Discussion 1: Food

 Food preference begins while a mother is pregnant or even during nursing. Both innate preferences and learned preferences are present in humans for certain foods, such as infants preferring sweet over bitter foods. There is an increased liking for repeatedly eaten foods, which makes people gravitate towards only eating the same foods and not trying other foods. It is just like how the food you eat when you are hungrier is going to be preferred more than the food eaten when you are less hungry. At some point, everyone has had a bad experience with food that has left them sick or feeling unpleasant, making it difficult to eat that food again, called taste aversion. I have been fortunate enough to have been exposed to various foods from different cultures and regions which has led me to have a wide range of likings and preferences. Over the years, I have learned more about portion control and how that benefits your health and lifestyle. Sometimes it is hard to "get along" with food due to past experiences, current experiences, or not having proper knowledge, such as myself. It took me a long time to understand that you can eat things that are deemed "unhealthy" and not be badly affected by them. Balance is so important when it comes to eating and there is a lot of misconceptions that come with that.

Drugs (post #3)

     Drugs are around us everywhere we go and look. Especially being a college student, I have seen so many people form addictions to different drugs. Psychoactive drugs are drugs that use chemical substances to alter our mood and behavior. Some examples of psychoactive drugs include caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, cocaine and opiates. So many people in this generation have a nicotine addiction and it has gotten really bad. People try it out because of the fun flavors and then do not realize how easy it is to become addicted to it. It is crazy to think that people can even have caffeine addictions. Alcohol is another drug that I think people do not fully think of as a drug. People can become addicted to drinking and the way that it makes them feel. 

    I think it is important that people are aware of how dangerous it can be with the amount of drugs there are. Using drugs like these too much can lead to severe addictions. I have had a couple of surgeries, and they always put me on oxy. I barely allow myself to take those pills because I have heard of many different stories of people like me getting surgery and then becoming addicted to their pain medication. These addictions can start in ways that are so harmless like someone just trying to recover from surgery. When people try to quit these drugs too they can get strong cravings which can make it hard to stop. 

Food preference (Post #2)

 Food preference is actually something that I find highly interesting. There are so many different facts and situations that go into why people like certain foods. This can have anything to do with culture and religion, but can also have to do with what our moms ate when they were pregnant with us. The example that our slides gives says that a mother drinks carrot juice when pregnant or nursing. The infant then experiences a carrot flavor, this leads to the baby wanting a carrot flavored cereal over something else. Another thing our slides talk about is the fat preference. Many people prefer the unhealthy fatty foods compared to the healthy foods. 

    Our food preference is something that can change throughout our lives. For me personally, when I was younger I preferred sweet food over salty. Now, I barely eat sweet foods and only ever want salty. Our food preference can also be attached to memory. For example, when my grandma was in the hospital, she always gave me this certain type of chocolate. Now that chocolate is my favorite because it reminds me of her when I eat it. There are also things that cause us to eat more. For example, when we are stressed. For me personally when I get super stressed out I can not eat but I have heard of so many people saying they can not stop eating when they are stressed. Comedy and horror films can also make us eat more which I found interesting. 

Wednesday, July 12, 2023

Self Control (post 1)

     Self-control is something that we start learning from an early age, and sometimes it can be quite difficult. We need to use our self-control in our every day lives all of the time. I personally believe that self-control is extremely important to have, in order to truly succeed in life. In our slides, it states that Howard Rachlin talks about people struggling with self control because they have difficulty delaying immediate gratification for a better future. This makes sense because people tend to want things in the moment, instead of thinking about how it could affect them later on. The example that was given talks about how an alcoholic may want that drink in the moment, but later on, it only hurts them and does not make them feel good anymore.

    Something that has made it really difficult for the younger generations to control themselves with is social media. Tiktok is a huge social media app that can highly influence people to do random things. Tiktok has now come out with the tiktok shop. This means that random influencers can test out products, post a video, and link the product in that video. This makes it so easy for people to just randomly buy stuff, even if they do not actually need it, all because their favorite influencer said to get it. Social media can influence people to do or buy all sorts of different things, without even realizing, so it is really important to have self-control.  

Monday, July 10, 2023

Discussion 1-Stress Eating

     I found the information about stress eating to be very prevalent to me.  I find that I am definitely a stress eater.  I always find myself craving fatty foods during stressful times.  In the information about eating, I read that humans tend to prefer fatty foods, like ice cream and chocolate.  This explains why in many TV shows and movies, you see the characters eating ice cream after a stressful break up.  I have tried to combat these cravings for fatty foods during this time but always find myself giving in.  I always knew how much stress can impact appetite but reading and seeing that it happens to a lot of people, I feel like I am beginning to understand it more. 

Food Preference (Post #3)

Food preferences can be significantly influenced by biological variables. Biological factors have a significant impact on our tastebuds. The human tongue has taste receptors that distinguish between sweet, sour, salty, and bitter flavors. Our taste preferences are shaped by these receptors' signals to the brain. Genetic variations can also influence how people experience and enjoy certain flavors. While some people prefer rather sour or bitter foods, others can’t handle the taste. A great example of this is coffee. While most people like coffee, there are different variations of the beverage. Some people prefer it with a lot of sugar to hide the bitterness while others prefer the bitter taste over it being too sweet. 

Cravings and preferences for particular foods can also be influenced by biological variables. Cravings for certain foods like pickles or ice cream might be brought on by hormonal changes during pregnancy. Also, nutritional deficiencies might cause a craving for particular meals that provide the nutrients a person is lacking. Biological factors can greatly impact a person's food preferences, including heredity, taste receptors, hormonal shifts, and dietary requirements.

Positive Reinforcement (Post #2)

Positive reinforcement is using a rewarding system as a result of good behavior. This is one of the four types of operant conditioning. There are positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers, positive punishers, and negative punishers. An example of positive reinforcement would be giving a child candy for putting away their toys. The good behavior is putting away the toy and the reward is receiving the candy. This will be done a few times and the child will be conditioned to pick up the toys. After some time, the child doesn’t need to be rewarded once they’ve become accustomed to picking up the toys. 

Self-Control (Post #1)

Self-control is the ability to exercise control over oneself. This could be a reference to physical control, such as behavior, or emotional control, such as desire. Self-control is essential, particularly in the world that we live in. The internet and other outside forces frequently have an impact on us. For instance, as the internet becomes more widely used, social media usage increases. People, especially young kids, are being persuaded to buy or try items they don't have to, whether it's through Instagram or Tiktok. This is the point where self-control is required.

The reason most influencers target a younger audience is that they lack self-control. While adults are more inclined to have a stronger tolerance for control, most kids don’t. An example that can be used is vaping. Smoking is seen as a terrible addiction that causes diseases such as lung cancer or even heart attacks. Vape was created and marketed as a healthier substitute and came in different flavors. In the last 20 years, electronic cigarettes such as vaping became more popular. According to the CDC, e-cigarettes have become the most used tobacco product by American children since 2014. 

Sunday, July 9, 2023

Internet Addiction

When perusing the different topics discussed so far this semester, many of them are interrelated with each other. The topic I will be discussing today that correlates with impulsivity and self control is internet addiction. This addiction may not be the same as a drug or alcohol addiction, but it has similar psychological effects and is something that is progressing throughout the years. When I was a little girl, the internet was not really a hot commodity. But as I grew older and now am at the age of 32, the internet has become a very popular place, and a lot of the time not a positive one. Internet addiction has increased heavily over the years, and has become prominently popular after COVID hit us in 2019. When people did not have anything else to do, they relied on the internet for entertainment. The lack of self control many people had disallowed them to limit the time they spend on the internet using different websites and applications on your phone. Practicing self control in this situation would be giving yourself an allotted time to use the internet, which includes your phone, and sticking to that. Unfortunately, a lot of people do not use self control when using the internet and act on impulse, spending hours on the internet without even realizing it.

Internet addiction has become a more common addiction nowadays, and is not really treated as an addiction. But when you define the word "addiction", it is when one engages in a behavior, and the rewarding effects provide an incentive to repeat this activity, despite the consequences that could be to their detriment. As applications like Facebook and Tik Tok became on the rise, many teens and young adults did not realize the amount of hours and time they were spending on the internet. Self control was disappearing at this point, and people were impulsively using the internet very frequently without understanding the damage it is causing and the time wasted that could have been used doing things that are beneficial and healthy. Overall, with me included, internet addiction affects people a lot more than they are willing to admit. If we begin to practice self control when using the internet and limit our impulsive behaviors, we can then possibly begin to have a healthy, solid routine that can help break the cycle of internet addiction.

Saturday, July 8, 2023

Drugs (Post 3)

 In terms of what they can be and how frequently they are used and/or abused, psychoactive drugs have a very wide spectrum. substances that affect mood and behavior are known as psychoactive substances; the effects on the user may vary. Caffeine, nicotine, and heroin are more extreme examples of these drugs, as are methamphetamine and methamphetamine. These drugs, which often include alcohol, meth, cocaine, and other addictive chemicals, can wreck lives. Addiction symptoms include a strong desire for the drug all the time or a need for it to function. When there is a serious drug addiction, trying to stop taking these substances can be very difficult and requires therapy or programs. Since so many people interact with or use drugs on a daily basis, they are incredibly fascinating. Some people use them for therapeutic purposes, while others use them for leisure activities. Drugs described in the PowerPoint were specifically referred to as psychoactive drugs, which are defined as chemical substances that affect one's behavior and emotions.

​​Drugs are all around us every day, and we aren't even aware of it. Any chemical that can "affect how the brain functions and causes changes in mood, awareness, thoughts, feelings, or behaviors" is considered psychoactive. The majority of us identify drugs with illegal substances, despite the fact that legal drugs like caffeine and nicotine exist. Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive drug and "speeds up your breathing, heart rate, thoughts, and actions." When they take it, many people say they feel more alert and awake the entire day. Caffeine users frequently feel more in control of their lives and better equipped to handle whatever the day may bring, whether the caffeine comes from coffee, soda, or energy drinks. Because of this, they feel compelled to consume caffeine in large quantities every day. Caffeine is consumed in amounts by at least 80% of adults that are harmful to brain health.

Self Control (Post 2)

 I've discovered that having self control is one of the most important things we can do to succeed in life. Self-control teaches us patience, and the results are frequently favorable. I saw a video of kids getting marshmallows while watching the talks. The kids were informed that they would receive a second marshmallow as a prize if they waited and did not eat the first one. This video demonstrates how exercising self restraint frequently pays off. A second marshmallow was given to the kids who exercised self-control and refrained from eating the marshmallow. The amount of time we spend on our phones or on social media is another illustration of self control. Although we don't constantly consider or even realize it in our daily lives, self control is a crucial component of many of the activities we perform. Your health, work, and relationships are just a few examples of the things that self control can affect. For instance, a person needs self control if they want to reduce weight and get in better shape. Positive self control is when someone forces themselves to exercise even though they don't want to since they are weary a few of days in a row. 

Self-control is greatly influenced by the choice of immediate reward over delayed gratification. According to Howard Rachlin, a lot of people's troubles in life are caused by their inability to put off present gratification in favor of future rewards. Howarch Rachlin's main illustration was alcohol. A person who chooses to drink may experience short-term satisfaction, but they will feel worse when they wake up. Another example of this is someone who puts off doing their schoolwork out of pleasure but then crams it all in during brief bursts of time, producing subpar work. The "primrose path" is the name given to this series of events, which is characterized as a "low-valued pattern of acts." Unhealthy habits and persistently destructive practices unfortunately develop in this way. When someone repeatedly chooses fast food over healthy food, they get into a repetitious behavior, and the long-term reward is an unhealthy, overweight person. If someone repeatedly chooses alcohol to feel rapid gratification, they may eventually develop alcoholism.

Addiction Post 1

 A person's daily life is significantly and profoundly impacted by addiction. It intrudes into their objectives and focus, invading their thoughts, feelings, and actions. A negative influence may be felt on relationships with others, performance in school or the workplace, and financial stability. Addiction typically causes a decline in physical and mental health as a result of the person's fixation with obtaining and using the addictive drug or engaging in addictive activities. The individual neglects routine responsibilities and activities in favor of sating urges and preventing withdrawal symptoms. All parts of an individual's life are affected by addiction, which slowly erodes that person's welfare and starts a cycle that can be very challenging to break.

    Many individuals battle addiction. Whether it be caffeine, alcohol, narcotics, or even something that is legal, addiction is the inability to stop consuming a substance. It entails feeling hooked to something and unable to let go of it. It's incredibly dangerous to have a drug or alcohol addiction because if a user overdoses, they might not live and die. People should stop using as soon as they become aware that they are reliant on a substance that is really damaging them since addiction shouldn't be taken lightly. Since people have died and endured suffering, and because society has advanced to the point where people should be able to think for themselves, addiction only serves to bring people down.

Friday, July 7, 2023

Food Preference

 When it comes to food preference  can be highly subjective and can vary widely among individuals. For some people food Preference are influenced by a combination of different things which could include biological, cultural and social influence. Psychological and emotional factors can influence food preference as well. i have witness that certain foods can associate memories or emotions for a person which could make the person a picky eater. It is important to remember that food preference are highly likable so one person might like therefore that means another person may dislike. Preference can change over time to personal experiences, exposure to new foods and change in lifestyle.

Another thing  is that food preference is not static; this mean they evolve and adopt over time, influenced by societal trends. Social media could have transformed the way people discover and share food. trend such as blogging have a big impact on what people perceive as desirable in the culinary world. 

Wednesday, July 5, 2023

Addiction (post 2)

 Addiction has a profound and far-reaching impact on someone's everyday life. It infiltrates their thoughts, emotions, and actions, consuming their focus and priorities. It can disrupt personal relationships, work or school performance, and financial stability. Addiction often leads to a decline in physical and mental health, as the individual becomes preoccupied with obtaining and using the addictive substance or engaging in addictive behaviors. Everyday activities and responsibilities take a backseat as the person's life becomes centered around satisfying their cravings and avoiding withdrawal symptoms. The consequences of addiction ripple through all aspects of a person's life, gradually eroding their well-being and creating a cycle that can be incredibly challenging to break.

Tuesday, July 4, 2023

Self Control

 Self-control is essential for managing a variety of facets of our life in today's fast-paced, busy society. It enables us to avoid the temptation to engage in undesirable behaviors like procrastinating or overindulging in junk food. We can make more thoughtful decisions that are in line with our long-term physical and mental wellbeing by practicing self-control. Self-control can be developed in daily life through a variety of tactics and routines. Self-control can be improved by the use of defined goals, routines, breaking things down into manageable steps, and social support. 

Additionally, by refilling our mental and physical energy stores, self-care practices, stress management, and emotional wellness activities can help us have better self-control.  We may improve our decision-making, cultivate healthier relationships, increase productivity, and promote personal growth by thinking about self-control and incorporating it into our daily life. It enables us to make deliberate decisions that are consistent with our values and long-term goals. When practiced, the valuable talent of self-control can considerably increase our level of contentment and general pleasure.