Thursday, September 30, 2010
It was found that money is a good motivator for simple mechanical tasks. However, for improved performance in work that requires cognitive skill and creativity, studies show that people are more motivated by having autonomy, self direction, the ability to master skills, and a sense of purpose. Naturally this required them being paid a decent salary.
I think that this shows that people in leadership positions should avoid micromanaging the employees who have tasks that require cognitive skills and creativity. I think this would help an organization which has a well defined purpose to be exceptionally successful.
The reading that caught my attention most was about the psychoactive drugs. I have a lot of friends with diffewrent drug addictions and it is very interesting to me why people chooses to do these things knowing the harm it can cause to their bodies. I myself have a nicotine and caffeine addiction but I'm working on quitting smoking.
Smoking cigarettes delivers nicotine to the brain which is the major psychoactive drug found in them. For those of you who do not know, smoke from cigarettes also contains ammonia, arsenic, and cyanide. The smoke also gives off carbon monoxide which is a colorless and odorless gas that is highly poisonous and prevents the blood from utilizing oxegyn.
When a smoker first trys it, they react negatively but eventually get used to it and enjoy it. I myself coughed and hated the first time buit then I got sucked in to the world of smoking. It can be very hard to quit because it does make you feel good after you do it. It helps to relax you and get through a busy and stressful day. Unfortunately, when people try to quit they can have serious withdraw symptoms such asirratibility, restlessness, anxiety, depression, hostility, difficulty concentrating and hunger.
Here is a little video I found comparing heroin and nicotine. It involves things we are also learning in perception so I thought everyone might find it interesting.
Here is my first post .. it had been made as a comment by accident. I finally figured this thing out haha. The book says "A person's consciousness is often deluged with sensations like cold, hot, thirst, hunger, and pain. These sensations serve to motivate specific actions in order to alleviate their unpleasantness."
I think that this is true and instead of writing my own post I wasnted to add to this one. I also understnadi thqat is is unethical to test certain intense emotions and I too have witnessed anger in the home. My mother has alot of issues she is unwilling to get help for and so she takes things out on me. High school was when things starting getting worse. She is conctantly putting me down and saying mean things because she is unable to control me and how I think. I guess you could say her anger motivates her to behave in the way she does. Then you have my dad who grew up in a strict family setting and who just finished 30+ years in the F.B.I. and also went Afganistan on special business. He probably has P.T.S.D. and sometimes his anger makes him throw things and yell. My emotions miotivate me to leave the situations when the occur and retreat back to school. Also because of my family I'm more motivated then ever to prove them wrong when they doubt I'll finish.
Emotions help motivate us to survive. If we did not react to things emotionally. we would be just like the animals. We need to be carfeul however when we let our emotions be our motivation. We have to make sure that its influencing our decisions in a postive way other ways things can spiral out of control.
Drugs like alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, and cocaine can alter a person’s mood. It is a safe bet that if drugs started out making you feel bad, few people would use them. The truth is that each drug can have a different effect, whether it is a relaxed sleepy feeling of bliss or an enthusiastic burst of energy, it makes a person feel good. Most people experience such a “positive Feeling” when they consume drugs that it is hard to match that incredible high with anything else again. Addicts begin to “crave” the substance. They want that amazing feeling back. The only way to get that feeling again is to use again. The more and more someone uses the more of a tolerance they build for their drug of choice. When a person begins using on a regular basis they can build up a tolerance for whatever substance they are using. When a person becomes tolerant of alcohol or any other drug, this means that it they will need to consume more then their usual amount in order to get that same “good” feeling. Once that feeling is gone they usually go through withdraw symptoms such as anxiety, vomiting, depression, etc. These negative effects can become a motivation to find another fix of their drug of choice. They want to replace the sick, bad feelings with good feelings. (Deckers,77-82)
These good feelings come from what is known as “The Pleasure Center” of the Brain. When a drug in consumed different chemicals, neurons, and hormones are released throughout the brain which create that pleasurable feeling. That pleasurable feeling can become a weakness for those who have inherited the genetics of an addict. A person who has an addict in the family is more likely to be susceptible to becoming an addict. A person’s environment and the people that they surround themselves with are also a common cause addiction. If a person’s parents are consuming drugs in front of them with no consequences, then that person may not understand the risks they are taking when doing drugs. Finally, a person’s personality can be another motivation. An impulsive person or a person that may not have a tight grip on reality is more likely to try and become addicted to drugs. Some people can not see that their family or future is more important then their next high. (Deckers, 80-89)
Music is everywhere. Everywhere people are, music follows. It is one thing that leaps from culture to culture, continent to continent, transcending any barrier that stands between people. Cultures everywhere have unique, indigenous music forms that celebrate the diversity of specific groups of people.
The media also promotes this line of thinking. People are taught that a skinny figure and good looks are the desirable traits in a mate. People conform to what the media presents to them. They apply this to their lives as well as their mating rituals. They look for the traits that the media tells them are positive and better than others and try to find it in their future mate. People do not realize that the mate selection is not always a natural occurrence but, in fact, influenced by outside factors such as the media.
Factors of mate selection are also influenced in ways that don't revolve around physical attraction. In this generation factors such as parental influence change the types of people that their offspring are attracted to. If the parents have a healthy relationship and the child likes the way their parents act, then they may be more inclined to like someone who reminds them of their parents. In contrast if the parents don't have a healthy relationship the child may look for a mate opposite of their parents so that they don't grow up to be like them. These things may also happen subconsciously. A person might not know why they are choosing that particular mate, but it may have something to do with their past. These are just some interesting points to think about when your considering your next boyfriend or girlfriend.
If you have ever watched the Jersey Shore, you can notice that their way of living is somewhat pleasurable. The jersey shore cast holds employment at a ice cream shop, on this season, that does not require a great deal of effort, in addition, they go to clubs to have fun, the guys go to gym and do their laundry, the girls go get their nails done, they all get together for a Sunday meal and so on. Most of what it's captured on film is more or less the cast having a good time, (of course, criticism aside). The behaviors exhibited by the cast are mostly pleasurable. Let's face it we would all like to live lid that even for a day. Well, maybe not exactly like Jersey Shore. But you can the gist, living a pleasurable life is much better than living with painful events.
The main motivator for such behaviors such as going to the gym, going to the nail salon is to receive self-satisfaction. We can identify with one of these behaviors as being pleasure-seeking. You visit the gym, you get in shape, you feel good, and you feel a sense of satisfaction. Or you go to the nail salon, you get a manicure and pedicure, you look nice, and you feel content with yourself. Bentham's principle and Freud can agree that as humans, seek out and have a high amount pleasure and we all want to avoid pain. These kinds of actions can also be reinforcing to the individual and eventually even be rewarding. Once it becomes pleasurable and reinforcing the motive to how we behave becomes apparent.
Why do humans seek pleasure? They have always done it and always will. It is part of our evolution. Herbert Spencer discussed how pleasure is our means of survival, and with were to eliminate the pleasurable events in our lives we will not survive. So, next time, before you start judging the cast members of the Jersey Shore think behind the motivation for their behaviors, they simply do it because it gives them pleasure. We have all had pleasurable events in our lives where we can't explain why we behave that way. The motive is to seek pleasure, or life would not be the same and just plain painful.
After reading numerous posts on my original topic of choice which was mate value and mate selection, I got to thinking about what more I could add to what has already been said. Most of my peers have already covered what we look for in a mate. Physical attractiveness, personality traits, that magical good looking, hard working smart gene. All these things are what attracts us to a person sure, but what actually keeps us with that person? Is it lust, is it love? Do we genuinely love people for who they are and what they do for us. Do we stay as physically attracted to that same person we drooled over the first time we saw them? I can't speak for the whole world of course but i'm gonna go out on a limb and say no we don't. Attraction fades with time. We grow bored and sick of each other. Monotony sets and you get to know the person entirely too well and then boom, you hate them. This may be a tad extreme but i'm sure you all get the gist of what i'm saying. So the question is over time, what is it that keeps us with these people when every time you see another suitor you wish you were able to go chase after them like a wild animal? My vote goes to that "green eyed monster" called jealousy. Even if you yourself may be happier with another person, the thought of seeing them with anyone but yourself would drive you crazy. The level of how crazy it would drive you probably differs between men and women. The book states that men are more worried about sexual infidelity while women are more worried about emotional infidelity. So in other words gals would be more torn up over seeing their man taking another woman out to dinner, while men would be rather livid over seeing his ex get railed by some other dude. Jealousy also plays a big part in the awful sport of mate poaching. People see someone they are attracted to and then they see someone else enjoying their company. How dare they find them first they're mine?! Then the hunt is on, and once the prey of choice is acquired, then what? Stolen candy never tastes as sweet. As stated in our text, "Animals, like humans, appear possessive and guard their mates closely as if they are motivated by jealous." I believe we are all motivated by jealous when it comes to our mate. There aren't many things more sacred in this world than the one you love, and if you don't watch out someone will absolutely tranquilize your girl with a blow dart like an elephant and harvest all that sweet ivory from her tusks. However, nothing in excess is good. Jealous can lead to delusion and many awful awful things. Overprotection of your mate could very well be what pulls you apart. So be wary of the sharks in the surrounding water, but make sure not to force your sweetheart to abandon ship.
According to some Evolutionary Psychologists it is and there are some interesting reasons as to why the human phallus has evolved into what it looks like today. The central reason being to ensure reproductive success through the displacement of possible foreign sperm lying in the vaginal tract of the female they have chosen to copulate with. Upon examining the design of the human penis Dr. Gordon Gallup and Rebecca Burch hypothesized that “A longer penis would not only have been an advantage for leaving semen in a less accessible part of the vagina, but by filling and expanding the vagina it also would aid and abet the displacement of semen left by other males as a means of maximising the likelihood of paternity.” So how did natural selection equip men to solve the adaptive problem of other men impregnating their sexual partners? The answer, according to Gallup, is their penises were sculpted in such a way that the organ would effectively displace the semen of competitors from their partner’s vagina, a well-synchronised effect facilitated by the “upsuck” of thrusting during intercourse. Specifically, the coronal ridge offers a special removal service by expunging foreign sperm. The effect of thrusting would be to draw other men’s sperm away from the cervix and back around the gland, thus “scooping out” the semen deposited by the sexual rival.
To prove his “semen displacement hypothesis” Gallup and a team of his students selected several sets of prosthetic genitals from erotic novelty stores, including a realistic latex vagina which they tied off at one end to prevent leakage, and three artificial phalluses. The first latex phallus was 6.1 inches long and 1.3 inches in diameter with a coronal ridge extending approximately 0.20 inch from the shaft. The second phallus was the same length, but its coronal ridge extended only 0.12 inch from the shaft. Finally, the third phallus matched the other two in length, but lacked a coronal ridge entirely. In a controlled series of “displacement trials,” the vagina was injected with artificial semen made up of flour and water before the phalluses were inserted at varying depths (to simulate thrusting) and removed, whereupon the latex orifice was examined to determine how much semen had been displaced from it. As predicted, the two phalluses with the coronal ridges displaced significantly more semen from the vagina (each removed 91%) then the headless control who only removed (35.3%). Additionally, the further that the phalluses were inserted – that is to say, the deeper the thrust – the more semen was displaced. When the phallus with the more impressive coronal ridge was inserted three fourths of the way into the vagina, however, it only removed a third of the semen, compared to removing nearly all semen when inserted completely (Gallup, 2003).
In the second part of the study which was published in Evolution & Behaviour, Gallup administered a series of survey questions to college-age students about their sexual history. These questions were meant to determine whether sexual behaviours could be predicted based on the men’s suspicion of infidelity in their partners. In the first of these questionnaires, both men and women reported that, in the wake of allegations of female cheating, men thrust deeper and faster. Results from a second questionnaire revealed that, upon first being sexually reunited after time apart, couples engaged in more vigorous sex – namely compared to baseline sexual activity where couples see each other more regularly which allows one to infer that by using their phalluses proficiently as “semen displacement devices,” men are subconsciously combating the possibility that their partners have had sex with another man in their absence (Gallup, 2003). It should be noted that the findings from this particular study did not unequivocally prove the semen displacement hypothesis, but it certainly confirmed its principal points while also supporting the evolutionary psychological concepts introduced in chapter three of our text in regards to men and the worry they feel about sexual infidelity (pg. 62), for if the female was sexually unfaithful, then the male is in doubt about his paternity of any children that might come from the union because they in fact may not be carrying his genes at all, but those of another (Deckers, 2010)
Its crazy when we look at how people are attracted to others. We can see how people choose their mates based on their looks, which probably has some deep down unconscious decision making reasoning, like we pick people who look attractive so it spurs reproduction. I mean come on its true. Makes sense, but its also funny watching people pair up because we often see people together who look like brother and sister. Maybe its because these people are equally attractive so they can pair up but its strange, it makes me wonder if there is a sibling affect while picking a mate.
All human begins share common motives such as sex, love, belonging, and the ability to acquire food. But as some motives stem to be universal, others may not be shared motivational traits. An example of this would be an education, because not everyone desires a college diploma. Also having money is questionable, but money allows the human to acquire universally desired materials such as food and shelter. It’s obvious that this differs from culture to culture, so determining “universal motives” must be generalized by all mankind desires. Here you may comment if money is a universal motive?
The Amish Mennonite is a traditional sub-group in Pennsylvania. The Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, and don’t value evolved technology such as electricity. Also children graduate school in the 8th grade to begin farm working for family food.
Our DNA make-up and our presented environment play major roles towards our source of motivation. All human’s have a drive to 1.) Reproduce, 2.) Maintain Health (live longer), and 3.) Fear (snakes, spiders, heights, est.). Human’s will always value survival, which can be easily understood through Freud’s fundamental physiologic response theory “ fight or flight”. Do you value Amish living? Do you think Amish children will fight for their traditional ways of living, or will they fly away into the modern world?
Wednesday, September 29, 2010
- People select partners with high mate value OR
- People do not select partners with low mate value
A man's "value" might be mainly determined by his status and prestige. His ambition, finances, intelligence and sense of humor are also considered. Some researchers believe that males who have higher mate values have sex earlier and with more people and have more promiscuous relationships altogether. For men, younger and more attractive women are most desirable not only because they are physically attractive, but also because they are more fertile. Overall, men typically place more value on a woman's good looks in a long term mate than women do because female mate value is more focused on the physiological aspect of the male mate.
Overall, we can assume that compared to women, men place more importance on physical attractiveness and women place more importance than men do on the "earning capacity" of a potential mate. Keep in mind that research in mating selection shows that one's culture has a significant influence on the way people select mates. Research has also explored what values (traditional or contemporary) a person may be focusing on during the mating selection process.
On Tuesday, when we were talking about selecting a mate I started to wonder about all the sites online that help you find the “perfect mate." Do these sites really work and if so how? One of the most popular sites I feel out there is eHarmony, so I began searching how they work.
When you go on the site you must register to become a member, after that you will be giving a survey with over a hundred questions that use up to 29 different dimensions to match you. Once that is all complete you can upload your picture and if you have not been rejected you can search through the matches they have given you. Now I am sure you may have been surprised when I just said you can proceed with the searching if you have not been rejected, right? Well many users after all the questions are complete, get a message telling them that there are no matches for them and are rejected from the site. That was a little surprising to me, but after I watched the video below, I realized those questions were all science based. Eharmony is rejecting people because they have not found a compatible person for them and do not want to waste anymore of the members time.
Culture has a huge influence on what food choices one makes. Generally, one will stick to those foods for life. Many people are reluctant to try foods indigenous to other cultures because they fear how the food will make them feel as well as what other cultures are actually eating. In Cambodia, a popular snack is fried Tarantulas. According to the text book, children reported fearing spiders the most, but in Cambodia, children love to eat them and consider them a delicacy.
On the show "Bizarre Foods" on Travel Channel, the host Andrew Zimmern, does not exhibit a fear of trying different cultural foods. This man will eat anything that would make many average Americans repulsed at. My boyfriend is a fan of this show, but honestly, I cannot watch it because it literally makes my stomach turn! According to Pliner and Hobden, the host of "Bizarre Foods" would of scored in the lower 15% of their food Neophobic Scale. In turn, he would be considered a Neophilic, or a person more willing to try different foods.