Friday, July 31, 2020

Reproduction Vs Happiness


            Reproducing is the involved behavior of intercourse to create life from a humanistic perspective. This behavior is also described as falling in love and building a family. This allows our species to continue to live in this world from generation to generation. However, many people mate with each other, but everyone is looking for specific qualities and traits. Some not all women look for a men to mate and to build more financial stability in their life. There was an experiment that they compare 2 men's, one with higher economic status of an estimate of $373,000 a year and not attractive traits at all. And one with physically attractiveness traits and made an estimate of $27,000 a year. These numbers made an impact on there score from different random women. The guy who made more money was given a 10/10 and the other guy 4/10.

This research shows that money is a contributor to how attractive is a person. However, in my perspective sometimes the guy who makes less money is not where he is meant to be yet. So, 2 people could work together to build a better future for them and their children. So, before looking at these digits, reason and think "is he really the right person for me?' because choosing the wrong person could be the biggest mistake of your life. The right choices are choosing someone you willing to be with for the rest of your life, and not the illusion of the life you could have with the money that is not yours.

Post #3 Are you what you eat?

In our class slides going over food, a few slides touch upon fat preference, how humans prefer fats in food, like ice cream and fast food. But as humans I believe we might prefer fats, but look at people who are vegan or vegetarian. When I was in high school in cooking class, we watched super size me. A documentary on Morgan Spurlock, a man who only ate McDonald meals for 30 days straight  Below I posted the documentary (yes its on you you tube and might gets some ads) But before he went on this diet, the man was vegan, so forcing his body to eat all those foods that it was not used to, caused him great pain. Now here is my question to all you fast food going out there. Do you think that eating fast food for 30 days can causes all theses problems? I know my body is not living the style of someone who is vegan so me eating a burger is not gonna kill me. Do you think this documentary was bias, why wouldn't a man who was vegan who know consumes vast amounts of fast food become ill. What are your thoughts?

Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Post 3- Self Control

    Self Control and Willpower plays a big part in people's lives. Willpower plays a part in food, work, hanging out with friends, etc. Some people have no self control when it comes to food. Some people will eat sweets daily and it will effect their health while others can have willpower and have maybe sweets once or twice a week as a cheat meal and live a healthier life style. Me being a college athlete I need to have self control when it comes to my diet. I have to be smart in the choices I make to eat while I see other people eating foods that I want badly. For example before a baseball game or workout I won't eat fried food because will cause my performance to be sluggish. I have willpower and choose to eat a salad or sandwich before a game so I see a better performance during my game. Another example could be if a person is a recovering alcoholic and goes to a club or out to eat with friends and one friend orders a beer. The recovering alcoholic needs to have Willpower and not relapse and enjoy the the night without alcohol. This all stems from the psychological mind also. 

self-control | 

Post 2- Addiction

    I found the lecture Addiction to be very interesting. Addiction can happen in many ways. A lot of people think addiction applies to only drugs, but it is way more than just drugs. Addiction can be caused from caffeine, alcohol, food, nicotine, gambling, etc. Once a person consumes a drug, nicotine, or caffeine and they like the way they feel after that one time is the starting point. If they really like how that one item makes them feel they will continue to do it. After a while they continue to do it it becomes hard to stop the habit because their mind send signals to the body saying they need more of it and that's how they become addicted. When a person smokes a cigarette because they say it helps them relieve stress is just the beginning of a constant cycle of consuming nicotine because they like it. Same thing goes with food and that's how people become obese. The psychological mind can be very hard to escape from because once you start something and like the way it feels your just going to wan more and more of. 
The Psychology of Addiction - The Freedom Center          

Post 1- Rewards

    Rewards and reinforcements are helpful techniques that can be given to people of all ages for good behavior to help reach people's milestones. This all stems from motivation. For people to reach their goal they need to find some sort of motivation. This is where the positive and negative reinforcement comes into play. If you do something good which leads to you reaching your goal you reward yourself by something that pleasures you or that is enjoyable which helps conditions the mind. Rewards can be stickers, money, toys, food, etc. An example would be when parents potty train their children and for every time the child uses the bathroom correctly they get a sticker and once they fill up the sticker chart they get a bigger reward which is some sort of present. Using the reward system can even be applied to animals like dogs or cats. Doing this conditions the child's brain and after a while will become use to using the bathroom without rewards. This is why applying positive and negative reinforcements helps reach the overall goal. 
Operant conditioning and reinforcement (Psychology A-Level)

Selecting a Mate

I thought the lecture presentation on reproduction was very intriguing. It was interesting to learn the various parts that play a role into selecting a mate. I especially found the videos on the social behavior of attracting a mate fascinating, that people who are rated high with physical attractiveness hold out longer in selecting a mate, while those rater on the lower spectrum of physical attractiveness match up faster with people that are compatible. Also, how financial status of an individual often changes one’s interpretation of “attractiveness.” The link below is an article I found and describes similar traits on how individuals select a mate. The top factor described in the article is choosing/comparing love vs. resources.

Michelle Obama's Speech

    Michelle Obama gives such an amazing ,motivational speech for students on who they want to be. She talks about how being put in hard situations will help you figure yourself out in the long run. She talked about how test scores don't prove anything about someone. She explains how she never looks at a person's grades or where they went to for school, but who they are as a person. I think this was very motivational and I think as college students this can definitely make you feel better about yourself and journey. 

Addictions and Caffeine

Reading over the lecture notes on addictions, it explained about psychoactive drugs which are chemical substances that alter mood and behavior. There was a list of some examples and one that caught my eye was caffeine. I never thought it would fall under this category however it's highly used in the world so I could understand why. Perfect example is how coffee helps with energy and feeling more alert throughout the day , however it can be VERY addicting. Too much of it can definitely have some effects on the body so its always important to balance your diet and not go overboard.

    This video was very interesting and discussed how to break bad habits. Nir Eyal talks about how he handles bad habits. He used fitness as an example and how people train like experts to get fit but have an amateur behavior. Someone who is trying to get in shape might try to workout til they are in pain or do workouts that aren't their favorite, but later treat themselves since they did all of that. It doesn't really help someone fix a bad habit. 
    Nir Eyal has an idea of "progressive extremeism" where it might be a slower process but can be more effective. He used eating sweets as an example and how to cut back on them. He said you should pick a candy that you can easily give up but can't have it for the rest of your life.  Gradually you will overcome that and might want to add another candy to the list you can go without. He mentions how this could take weeks, months even years to master but it is definitely effective with breaking a bad habit. I could see how this could help someone change a behavior and motivate them to do better. 

post 3 reproduction- selecting a mate

Within the reproductive slides I learned something that I was not expecting, the value of a mate. Until this class, I never really thought about what to look for in a mate. Due to my previous bad relationship, I suppose I have only ever thought about what i do NOT want in a mate. I found the mate value inventory to be very interesting as it made me wonder if people really scale their future mate in this way. I could talk about this topic forever with how much I have learned but overall, everyone has their own attractiveness. For example, I can find a man attractive while my best friend does not, does this mean he is unattractive? Or is it that what my friend is looking for in a mate differs from my own desires. We are all made up of our own genetics which makes each of us unique. What do you look for in a mate? Personally I look for characteristics such as strength both mentally and physically to outweigh my own weaknesses, someone who is compassionate and affectionate who is always pushing me to do my best. Remember that it is normal to have different opinions and perspectives of people, just because your friend does not see your mate as a good one does not mean that he is in fact not a good mate for you but maybe has none of the specific characteristics your friend is looking for herself in a mate.

post 2 self control

Self control is something many people lack but can earn. For example when I was young, I had no self control over sweets. Every time that I would see a cookie on the counter or chocolate bars stashed away, I had to eat them. Today, I have now developed self control and quickly trained myself to resist the unhealthy snacks. It began simply with eating a banana or other piece of fruit whenever I was craving a cookie or chocolate which then conditioned my brain to crave fruit whenever I was craving something sweet. Self control is also very important when it comes to daily activities such as work or school. Whenever you choose to do homework instead of hanging with friends you are using self control, just as you use it when making it to work on time instead of being late for stopping for that wawa coffee. We use our own self control every day more than we realize and learning how to maintain self control will benefit your overall health and wellbeing.  Eating too many cookies will cause me to gain weight, hanging out with friends instead of doing homework will cause you to receive a bad grade, and being late to work too many times can end with you losing your job. The most influential piece of having self control is the fear of the side effects that can arise from the lack of control. By having your own self discipline you can succeed faster and farther in so many aspects of your life.

Post 1 Addiction

The word addiction is a very controversial word as many believe that addiction is a choice not a disease. I went to nursing school for three years and there are certain topics I had to study to be an expert on, addiction is one of them. I also work in Atlantic City hospital on the trauma unit so unfortunately, I deal with addicts on a daily basis. The most important point to make is that addiction is not only caused by "bad drugs". When a person consumes a drug time after time, your brain starts to depend on that drug leading you to addiction. A person can be addicted to simple over the counter medicines, psychoactive drugs, class 1 drugs, you can become addicted to nearly anything, even food. Caffeine is one of the highest addictive substances but because it is not a drug we do not see ourselves becoming addicted to it. Once a person becomes addicted to something it is very hard to break them from it as their mind is psychologically depended on this new substance. Addiction is a matter that I believe should be taken more seriously. I warn everyone to remember that addiction happens quickly and sometimes without even knowing. You can become addicted to unhealthy foods which can lead to obesity and even food addictions are hard to break. Addiction transforms the way your mind thinks, leading drug addicts down dark roads and uncontrollable harmful actions. Unfortunately, the addiction is ones blood runs stronger than any love of family or friends.

Friday, July 24, 2020

Post #1: Rewards

I found the slides titled "Rewards" to be extremely informative. As a Registered Behavior Technician, I find that operant conditioning is a part of my daily work. People are motivated by both primary (food, water, other necessities) and secondary (money, stickers, tally marks) reinforcers. They can be intrinsically motivated, which means that they are motivated by their own means, or extrinsically motivated, which typically requires a secondary reinforcer, such as a reward chart or a token economy system, in order to perform the said behavior. For example, many children are not intrinsically motivated to brush their teeth and children with neurological differences, like ASD, ADHD or Sensory Processing Disorder, might feel more repulsed to do so due to tactile and sensory reasons. Therefore, they can be given a visual chart that reminds them to brush their teeth and every time they do this task, they get a sticker (5 stickers equals a treat). Schedules of Reinforcement can help set up a rule for instances in which a behavior will be reinforced. The four schedules are known as fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio and variable interval. The reinforcers can vary based on the allotted time or number and a behavior might be reinforced every time, some of the time, or at random times, depending on whether it is fixed or variable. Ratio refers to the amount of times someone does something and interval refers to the time elapsed. A real life example of this is a slot machine, which follows a variable ratio schedule as the person will get a bonus after a certain amount of times, but those times are random and variable. This makes gambling so reinforcing to an individual because they never know when they will hit the jackpot. The above example I provided about getting a child to perform the action of teeth brushing and the associating chart is based on a fixed ratio schedule. This video explains the schedule of reinforcement well!

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Drug Addiction

Drug Addiction

"Drug Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences" (recovery centers). As the years go by, it seems that drug addiction gets worse and worse even with all of the help that is out there. "Drug addiction can start with experimental use of a recreational drug in social situations, and, for some people, the drug use becomes more frequent" (mayo clinic). Some symptoms of drug addiction include: feeling that you have to use the drug regularly, having intense urges for the drug that block out any other thoughts, over time, needing more of the drug to get the same effect and so much more. There are so many resources out there to help you, but people just need to take advantage of them and actually use them.

Wednesday, July 22, 2020

Book Report- The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg

The Power of Habit, written by Charles Duhigg, is named one of the best books of the year by The Wall Street Journal-Financial
Times. The book addresses why we do what we do in life and in business. Research shows that up to 40% of our daily actions are
based on habits which is a huge matter. If we change our habits, we change our lives. Willpower is the most important habit, and
you can strengthen it over time with 3 things. Any habit can be broken down into a three part loop: cue, routine and reward. For
example, your alarm clock rings in the morning which is your cue. The routine actions are you walking into the bathroom and
brushing your teeth. The reward would be a minty fresh, clean mouth. Your brain activity increases when a cycle is completed and
reinforces the length between the cue and the routine. This is exactly how a habit is created.

The Power of Habit: 3 Steps To Creating Good Habits (and Breaking ...
Habits stick because they create craving. Breaking a bad habit is difficult because you develop a craving for the reward at the end
of the habit loop. The golden rule of changing any habit is to not resist craving but instead redirect it, keep the same cues and
rewards but change the routine that occurs as a result of that craving. Research indicates that most of the alcoholics crave relaxation
and companionship far more than the actual intoxication by providing them new routines that address those cravings such as going
to meetings and talking to sponsors for companionship could effectively substituting with something less harmful.Willpower is the
most important key. Some days hitting the gym is no problem but some days leaving the sofa is close to impossible. It turns out
that will power is like a muscle, you can strengthen it by engaging in habits that demand resolution. Following habits is not only a
key part of our lives but also a key part of organizations and companies. All habits comprise a cue routine reward loop and the
easiest way to change this is to substitute the routine with something else. Achieving lasting change in life is difficult, but it
can be done by focusing on important keystone habits such as willpower. 

The Habit Loop | Book Review : The Power of Habit | by Laxmena ...

I wanted to share my favorite part of the book which is a quote written directly from Charles Duhigg himself, “the difference
between who you are and who you want to be is what you do.” Lately I have found that my success is limited by my embedded
routines and habits. Changing a habit can be very difficult and we often don't even realize we have a habit that is restricting our
potential to improve overall in our lives. I am currently at a stage in my life where I am not the happiest, but I am comfortable
which is making the process of breaking my habits and routines extremely challenging. I see two paths that I can take, I can stay
exactly where I am because it’s all I know and it’s what I’m comfortable with, or I change my current situation which would push
me out of my comfort zone and force me to grow as a person which is exactly what I want for myself. As per the quote stated by
Charles Duhigg, I can stay unhappy in my current situation or I can force myself to move out of it in order to become who I want to
be. For example, if I continue living in New Jersey with my parents, I know that I will continue to feel unhappy and lonely. But if I
force myself to break out of these habits/ routines and move to Pittsburgh where my boyfriend is, I know that I would be happy
with him and I would be working towards my goal of becoming what I know I am capable of. I am aware that it will take a lot of
motivation to fully break a habit/ routine, but it's possible when you really want something in life. Motivation is the key to pushing
and fighting for what you want, and how you see your best self and life. You are in complete control of your life if you learn the tricks to mastering motivation.

Pittsburgh - Wikipedia

Here is a helpful video that I found to best describe the process of breaking a habit: 

Tuesday, July 21, 2020

Post #2 The Value of a mate

On the slide of reproduction, it states a term, "mate value" which is one person's characteristics  that makes him or her describe to another person as a partner. Ask yourself, what do you look for in a person who you might wanna date or mate with, if they are funny, caring, smart, or maybe you care about more psychical features like how thin they are, or how they look. I bring this up because the value of a mate is not only just a human thing, it happens all though the animal kingdom. Male animals, showing who is the best, who has the best characteristics to mate with. an example can be a male deers. Who use their antlers to fight other males to show their value to mate. So I ask, what do find that mate must have for you to be attracted to them, can it be their intelligence, how much they can lift, how good they can cook?  For me, I need someone who is empathic, who can express and show emotion.

Below is a video of deers fighting over dominance


Willpower is defined as the ability to control one’s own actions, emotions, and urges; a strong determination that allows one to do something difficult (Merriam-Webster). Willpower and self-control go hand in hand throughout your life. Willpower is a huge characteristic that plays a big part in my life. I work out daily and have a very healthy eating routine. I find it difficult to wake up some days and be able to perform a workout and still accomplish all I need to get done in the day. However, I am able to push myself to workout, even if I feel I am not at my best. This video is one of the many that inspires me to “go through the motions” even when you are not feeling it. It is as simple as that. Jacko Willink talks about how not to let the immediate gratification of not doing the task outweigh the long-term gratification. I find that you can apply willpower to not just working out, but also eating, getting out of bed, starting and finishing projects, and completing goals. I still struggle with balancing willpower and self-control, however videos like give me clarity and a healthy mindset.

Sunday, July 19, 2020

Self Control

Self Control

"Self control is the ability to control oneself, in particular one's emotions and desires or the expression of them in one's behavior, especially in difficult situations" ( Self control I believe is such an important thing to have. An example of self control would be when you want the last cookie but you use your willpower to avoid eating it because you know it isn't good for you. Self control is very important not only for you, but also for your health and well-being. 

Saturday, July 18, 2020

Caffeine Addiction

Sources Of Caffeine – Caffeine Addiction

I found the Addictions and Addictive Behavior slides to be the most interesting from those provided in the course. I have always
been aware that caffeine was addicting, but I personally do not drink coffee or any of those other caffeinated beverages so I
decided to do some more research on this topic in order to have a better understanding. I quickly learned that caffeine is
the world's most popular drug. Caffeine produces heightened activity in the brain. Caffeine crashes adenosine receptors which blocks the normal guests, adenosine from doing its job. Adenosine is responsible for slowing down nerve activity in the brain which gives us the cue to calm down and to take a nap. Those effects trickle down to theobromine which increases flow of oxygen and nutrients to the brain, paraxanthine which increases athletic performance, and theophylline which increases heart rate and ability to concentrate. These effects come together to produce a state of wakefulness. Too much caffeine could turn sour pretty quickly. At a higher dosage, caffeine is known to cause the jitters, anxiety and just general all around discomfort. The safest average dose of caffeine per day for adults is 400mg, which is around three 8oz of coffee, five 8oz red bulls, or eight 8oz cups of black tea. Scientists reported that caffeine can become toxic around 10 grams which can also be viewed as 180 cups of coffee. After reading more into this topic, I am definitely thankful that I have yet to develop a caffeine addiction!


Rachel Ziegler

Rewards and Motivation

Reward and reinforcement are important techniques to reach success and all desirable goals. Motivation is the ability to focuses in one direction that is convenient to oneself. All successful people have motivational behavioral and other qualities to reach their fullest potential.  A reward system also is known as positive or negative reinforcements are used to motivate the behavior to condition the mind and oneself do be more naturally successful in reaching goals and completing tasks. This can be done by rewarding yourself with things that are enjoyable and pleasurable to condition the mind to focus. The reward and reinforcements are important qualities because they condition the motivational behavior to be more structured to reach self-actualization.

One example would be studying for a test. During studying consume your favorite candy and when you finish studying do something you enjoy. You would find yourself more comfortable while studying because your consuming pleasure with studying making yourself enjoy studying. It is that simple. I enjoy eating super cholate cheesecake all the time after doing something good for myself, for example after the gym.  And if I receive a good grade for all the hard work, I will go out to celebrate these accomplishments. You are probably thinking, he celebrates just for getting an A in a test and not the entire class? Yes, I am overreacting to everything. So, if you want to go celebrate after getting an A+ in this class, then let us go celebrate! Anyone like wine simplifying?

Friday, July 17, 2020

Self-Control, Bad Habits & Will Power

I found "Motivation Lecture: Impulsivity & Self Control #1" to be a great opening for the course. I think it's important to develop an understanding of your own willpower and self-control method. Everyone has a different and unique way to go about this, therefore I have attached a link that leads to  a few articles and videos that address motivation for self-control and for changing bad habits. The speaker provides appropriate steps to take in order to achieve and succeed from these practices.

Instead of wondering if you will feel like working out today, take the decision making out of it by stating where, when and how you will implement that habit. The speaker addresses “The Failure Premortem” which is a quick exercise to notice what is holding you back. Picture yourself in six months from now. Imagine you have failed to achieve your most important goal. Ask yourself, what caused you to fail? What happened? What challenges did you face? What happened that took you off course? Once you can answer those questions and lay them out in front of you, you can begin to develop a plan to succeed. Give your goals a time and place to live in the world. Furthermore, practicing this plan will allow us to flip the switch from habits that control us to developing self-control and self-care goals. 

I thought I would share a favorite quote of mine from the link: “Self-control- or the ability to subdue one’s impulses, emotions, and behaviors in order to achieve longer-term goals- is what separates modern people from their ancient ancestors and the rest of the animal kingdom… The ability to exert self-control is typically called willpower. Willpower is what allows people to direct their attention, and it underlies all kinds of achievement, from school to the workplace” (Psychology Today).

The Power of Motivation

The Power of Motivation:

“The Power of Motivation” by CrashCourse, helped me to better understand the term “motivation” and the history behind it. I
first viewed this video at the start of this course in order to properly prepare myself for the upcoming weeks. The speaker in the
video covers the common question behind motivation, “why? Why do we have motivation to get out of bed and go to work?”
Motivation is the need or desire to do something. Whether it’s biological, social, emotional, etc. For example: making dinner,
going to college, getting a job, or whatever else moves you and drives you. Never estimate the power behind what may motivate
you. If you have the need to survive/ belong and can harness that motivation, you can do just about anything. Psychologists
often view motivation in one or more of four ways that help us to understand what drives us:

1. An evolutionary perspective: Back in the day it was popular to view “instant” as innate drives to
act a certain way. Today “instant” is a complex, unlearned behavior that has a fixed pattern
throughout a species. 
2. Drive-reduction: A physiological need, or drive, simply compels us to reduce that need.      
    Example: Hearing your stomach growl and looking for something to eat.  
3. Optimal arousal: Motivated to maintain a balance between stimulation and relaxation. To   
    avoid both boredom and stress. 
    Example: After a long week of school/ studying, you take a break to go hiking with your         
    friends over the weekend.  
4. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before 
    individuals can attend to needs higher up. From the bottom of the hierarchy upwards, the  
    needs are: physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.

I highly recommend watching this video to develop a better understanding and to receive a different viewpoint of the term
“motivation” since everyone may have a different definition and perspective of it!


Rachel Ziegler