After reading the article twice, I would like to say it was ridiculously written and rather idiotic. I can understand the purpose of a previous literature review, but it could have done just as well without the non-sense, like excessive wordiness.
That being said, Festinger states that cognitive dissonance is a motivating state for human beings. It is the kind of relationship between cognitions which exist simultaneously for a person. In other words, cognitive dissonance represents two things that do not fit or belong together. An example given in the article was that of a smart man with repeated failure. I do not know if I agree with Festinger, or perhaps I still do not understand fully. What is the difference between cognitive dissonance and reality of things? Maybe that man was not meant to succeed. No one is perfect-- failure is inevitable.
When it comes to cognitive dissonant, is it not human nature for someone to fix something that is not working for him/her? In my opinion, it seems like common sense. If something was not working for me, I would try something different. Lastly, I feel that the experiments were not so reliable, maybe even a joke. You have people that make careers out of 'kill for hire'. Of course people will do things for money! A relatively simple concept, that yes, people will work and try harder for more money.