I found the concept of self-control to be quite compelling. As most would assume it to be a matter of one's own willpower, it is instead an issue of conflicting outcomes. The example given in our class slides illustrate this point by mentioning the prospect of alcohol consumption. There are both negative and positive effects that can result from an individual "throwing a few back." Negative outcomes can result in a person suffering from a wicked hangover the following day and/or cause a person to make less-than-ideal choices while intoxicated. Positive outcomes can include feelings of tranquility and/or a substantial increase in their self-confidence. By choosing to practice the element of physical restraint, one is able to prevent a potentially problematic situation by weighing the options of all likely outcomes.
Sources: Introduction to Learning and Behavior (Russel A. Powell, P. Lynne Honey, Diane G. Symbaluk); Psych 3380 class slides (Mark Berg)